By J. Ullmann, et. al.,
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The First Law of Thermodynamics As stated above, the ﬁrst law is a conservation equation: energy transferred to a system will be conserved as changes in properties of the system or changes in potentials of the system. That is, energy may be transferred or altered in form but never created or destroyed. Energy that enters a system must either come out of the system or accumulate (the checkbook principle): Heat added to the system þ Work done on the system ¼ Changes in internal energy U þ Changes in potential and kinetic energy or Q À W ¼ DU þ Dðpotential and kinetic energyÞ ð2:2Þ In Eq.
4 is doing) to compress a working ﬂuid. The working ﬂuid is later expanded against a resistance, and the ﬂuid cools (usually). Engineers have made it their job to determine how much cooling is produced, how much work is required for that cooling, and what kind of compressor or other equipment is required. More than that, we have made it our business to optimize such a cycle by trading energy for capital until a minimum cost is found. We can make any process more ‘‘efﬁcient’’, that is, less energy-demanding, by increasing the size, complexity, and cost of the capital equipment employed.
System: Any portion of the material universe set apart by arbitrarily chosen but speciﬁc boundaries. It is essential that the system be clearly deﬁned in any thermodynamic analysis. Surroundings: All parts of the material universe not included in the system. The deﬁnitions of system and surroundings are coupled. The system is any quantity of matter or region mentally set apart from the rest of the universe, which then becomes the surroundings. The imaginary envelope that distinguishes the system from the surroundings is called the boundary of the system.