Download Advances in Computers, Vol. 77 by Marvin V. Zelkowitz PDF

By Marvin V. Zelkowitz

This can be quantity seventy seven of Advances in pcs. in view that 1960, annual volumes are produced containing chapters through a number of the best specialists within the box of pcs at the present time. for fifty years those volumes provide rules and advancements which are altering our society. This quantity provides 8 various subject matters overlaying many alternative elements of desktop technological know-how. a variety of topics are lined from insights into different methods members can engage with digital units to how universal legislations is adapting to and impacting on the net.

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4 Note that, although the periodic patterns in the probability maps are not visible at this reduced scale, they are particularly salient in the Fourier domain in the form of localized peaks. Note also that these peaks do not appear in the images that are not CFA interpolated (last row of Fig. 13 and 14). Since it is likely that tampering will destroy the periodicity of the CFA correlations, it may be possible to detect and localize tampering in any portion of an image. To illustrate this, consider the leftmost image in Fig.

The matrix C is designed to dampen the effects of higher order harmonics and is motivated by the observation that the average power of spherical harmonic coefficients for natural lighting environments decreases with increasing harmonic order [25]. 26 H. FARID For the full lighting model when 3D surface normals are available (Equation 49), the matrix C has ð1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3Þ on the diagonal. The error function to be minimized (Equation 49) is a least-squares problem with a Tikhonov regularization [26].

Note the peaks in jℱ ðpÞj corresponding to periodic correlations in the CFA-interpolated images, and the lack of such peaks in the non-CFA-interpolated image (last row). 39 PHOTO FAKERY AND FORENSICS Image p | (p)| 5 × 5 median Gradient Adaptive color plane Variable number of gradients No CFA interpolation FIG. 14. Shown in each row is an image interpolated with the specified algorithm, the probability map of the green channel as output by the EM algorithm, and the magnitude of the Fourier transform of the probability map.

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