Download Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 77 by Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.) PDF

By Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)

This quantity comprises overview articles masking a extensive diversity of subject matters in snapshot processing and research. the themes coated comprise picture research - which has united and harmonized a bunch of heterogeneous fabric; modern techniques to the Fourier rework; quantity theoretic transforms, that are really appealing for discrete, finite indications; using the Wigner distribution - which encodes either spatial and spectral details, for picture filtering; and purposes of the idea that of data power. those updated surveys are meant to supply the reader with entry to the newest leads to the super lively box of snapshot technological know-how.

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Extra info for Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 77

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16. , 1981. ) ACTIVE-MATRIX THIN-FILM TRANSISTOR LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAYS 35 current I , as a function of gate voltage V, for 2, 10, and 20 volts of drain voltage V,, are shown in Fig. 16. As indicated, the OFF current at zero gate voltage is below lo-" ampere, the ON/OFF current ratio is about lo6, and the threshold voltage is around 5 volts. 4 cm2/V sec. The effects of photoconductivity on the amorphous Si TFT are shown by the transfer curves of Fig. 3-pmthick silicon nitride film was used as a gate insulator.

However, for many applications, no defects can be tolerated. In these cases, some redundancy technique must be used. , 1986). 4. Environmental Problems In many cases, LCDs must endure harsh environmental conditions, such as high or low temperature, high humidity, and strong ambient light. These conditions may cause problems with the TFT itself or the liquid-crystal material. In some cases, the LC material limits the temperature-operating range. At low temperature, the response time of the LC material may become too long, whereas at high temperature, the RC time constant may be dgraded because of the decrease of its resistivity.

For instance, in a 4 x 4-inch matrix display that contains 500 x 500 pixels, all 250,000 transistors must operate properly in order to obtain a defect-free display panel. In this section, the key factors associated with the TFT elements themselves are discussed. A. Fundamental Physical Arrangement and Operation of the Thin-Film Transistor Liquid-Crystal Display A cross-sectional view of the TFT LCD is shown in Fig. 7 based on the configuration in Fig. 4 (see Section LD). On the lower glass plate, the TFT array is fabricated as well as the transparent driving electrodes for the individual pixels, usually a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO).

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