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By Jin Woo Chang, Yoichi Katayama, Takamitsu Yamamoto

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Extra info for Advances in Functional and Reparative Neurosurgery (Acta Neurochirurgica Supplementum)

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The items of evaluation were the same as those before surgery, except that four states of the patient were assessed, including medication off=stimulation off (Medoff=Stimoff), medication off=stimulation on (Medoff=Stimon), medication on=stimulation off (Medon=Stimoff) state and medication on=stimulation on (Medon=Stimon). The equivalent dose of levodopa was also calculated. Statistics In comparison of ADL, UPDRS motor score and subscores, dyskinesia and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) in all patients, a paired t test was used.

Japan (A15209047 and C15591553), Technology for the promotion of the industry-university collaboration at Nihon University, and a Program Grant from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan. Discussion In this study, we demonstrated that MSD clearly increased when the electrode entered the STN. In the typical recording within the STN reported by Starr et al. [9], large amplitude spikes from multiple cells and elevated neural noise level were observed. The increase in MSD at the dorsal boundary of the STN is consistent with these findings.

There is a report that scoliosis may be linked to the occurrence of cervical dystonia, perhaps as a forme fruste of a genetic dystonic predisposition [3]. Stuttering is also suggested as a type of dystonia [5]. We may in future become able to solve such difficult but important problems based on the knowledge of neurosurgical treatment of dystonia. References 1. Bertrand CM (1993) Selective peripheral denervation for spasmodic torticollis: surgical technique, results, and observations in 260 cases.

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