Download Alexander the Great: His Armies and Campaigns 334-323 BC by Nicholas Sekunda PDF

By Nicholas Sekunda

Upon the assassination of his father King Philip II in the summertime of 336 BC - whereas planning for an invasion of Persia - Alexander took over the reigns of strength of a now united Greece. while he led his mixed Macedonian and Greek military into Asia a yr later he begun the best profession of army conquest in global background. In 11 brief years he overcame the may well of the Persian Empire and campaigned around the face of the recognized international. during this mix of 2 of Osprey's such a lot profitable titles, Men-at-Arms 148 the military of Alexander the good and crusade 7 Alexander 334-323 BC: Conquest of the Persian Empire, eminent students of the Classical global - Nick Sekunda and John Warry - describe intimately the make up of Alexander's military, and the process his epic campaigns.

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Although the extent of China’s territory has waxed and waned through history, its current land borders are more than 16,000 kilometres in length. By way of comparison, the northern borders of the Roman Empire at the time of Augustus – from Spain in the west to Jerusalem in the east – measured some 8,000 kilometres (Swaine and Tellis 2000: 9). Thus, like France, Germany and Russia, China is a continental power whose geography has obliged it to divide its military resources between its land forces and its maritime forces, thereby precluding its development as a great sea power.

19 C H I N A ' S TA C T I C A L S U B M A R I N E F L E E T Together with its efforts to upgrade its recruitment, training and doctrine, improvements to its submarine force, represented by the acquisition of the Kilo-class boats and their weapons systems and the continuing Song-class construction programme, are evidence of the great importance that the PLA Navy attaches to the development of an effective submarine warfare capability. Chinese military planners appear to agree with the conclusions of three PLA Navy officers from the Navy Research Institute in Beijing on the critical role of submarines in future warfare: ‘during the First World War, the dominant vessel was the battleship, and in World War II it was the aircraft carrier.

From these ‘bastions’, Soviet SSBNs could patrol under the protection of naval and land-based air forces, while their 8,000km-range SLBMs enabled them to strike targets throughout the continental United States (Miller 1998: 122). China has begun work on a new SSBN called Project 094 (Norris and Kristensen 2003: 78). When the PLA Navy eventually deploys its second generation Type-094 SSBNs they will be armed with 16 JL-2 ballistic missiles with a range of 8,000 kilometres (Shambaugh 2002: 72). But to pose a credible deterrent threat to the continental United States, these Type-094 SSBNs would still have to deploy to deep-ocean patrol areas in the Pacific to launch their missiles.

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